Fecha: 
01/11/2004
Linea de Investigacion: 

Abstract

We studied the seroprevalence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in the human population along with domiciliary infestation by triatomine bugs in an area endemic for Chagas disease in the Chaco Province of Argentina. In addition, we carried out parasitologic surveys in patients, dogs, wild mammals, and vectors. The mean seroprevalence in humans was 27.81% (109 of 392) and 24.14% (63 of 261) in 1-15-year-old children. The minimum domiciliary infestation rate was 13.33%, with certain areas reaching 53.85%. The prevalence was 15.09% (16 of 106) in dogs and 35.71% (10 of 28) in opossums. Infection with T. cruzi was detected in 30.10% (59 of 196) of the Triatoma infestans tested. Compared with nationwide studies, our data suggest that 1) there are zones requiring immediate sanitary action, and 2) nationwide estimates are based on very heterogeneous epidemiologic situations. This heterogeneity emphasizes the importance of in-depth studies of restricted areas to provide additional information for a better understanding of the present status of Chagas disease in Argentina.

Fecha: 
01/01/2004
Linea de Investigacion: 

Abstract

Migration of HIV infected individuals from cities to small towns and rural areas spreads AIDS among non urban population, superimposing HIV with other endemic or epidemic infections as parasitoses. This situation is a big challenge to public health because in most cases the association between these infections worsens both prognoses. We present here the first case in Argentina of AIDS associated to a mucocutaneous form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The patient was from Orán, an area where in the middle eighties, an epidemic outbreak took place. By now more than 2000 cases have been parasitologically confirmed in our Institute and the causing species were identified as Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amasonensis. Considering the existence of co-infection of HIV and Leishmania, it is recommended that in patients from endemic areas with records of cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers, even healed, leishmaniasis must be investigated, among other diseases.

Fecha: 
15/09/2003
Linea de Investigacion: 

Abstract

A set of 65 Trypanosoma cruzi stocks from dogs, opossums, insect vectors and humans was isolated in a geographically restricted endemic area for Chagas' disease in Argentina and was analysed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for 15 loci. The results show that at least five multilocus genotypes (clonets) circulate in the study area, one belonging to T. cruzi IIe, one to T. cruzi IId and three clonets belonging to T. cruzi I; and they confirm the presence of these lineages in the country. The three clonets attributed to T. cruzi I were identical to each other for all loci except for Sod-2, where three different patterns were identified. These patterns suggest the presence of two homozygous genotypes and one heterozygous genotype. Our results also suggest association of clonet IIe with dogs, clonet IId with humans and the three T. cruzi I clonets with Didelphis albiventris. On the other hand, there was no significant association between Triatoma infestans and any particular clonet circulating in the area. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of natural selection, from mixed populations of T. cruzi in vectors, toward more restricted populations in mammals. The epidemiological implications of the possible selection of different clonets by different mammal hosts and the significance of two homozygous genotypes and one heterozygous genotype for the Sod-2 locus are discussed.

Fecha: 
01/09/2003
Linea de Investigacion: 

Abstract

In a study, carried out in 2000, of the clinical and parasitological status of a Wichi Aboriginal community living in the suburbs of Tartagal, northern Salta, Argentina, 154 individuals were screened for parasitic infections. Ninety-five faecal samples were also obtained from the same population. Ninety-three percent of the subjects were positive for 1 or more of the parasites investigated by direct test and 70.5% of them had parasitic superinfection. The most frequent helminths were Strongyloides stercoralis (50.5%) and hookworm (47.4%). We found low reinfection rates and a long reinfection period after treatment and provision of safe water and sanitation. Serum reactivity of these patients was analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescent assay and 22.1% of them had anti-Toxocara antibodies, 16.2% were positive for a complex antigen of Leishmania braziliensis, 29.9% were positive for a complex Trypanosoma cruzi antigen, and 17.5% were positive for a specific Trypanosoma cruzi antigen, Ag 163B6/cruzipain.

Fecha: 
01/01/2003
Linea de Investigacion: 

Abstract

The aims of this study were to characterize human American tegumentary leishmaniasis, which includes cutaneous, mucocutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis, in Northwest Argentina, to determine the prevalence of double infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and to identify the species of Leishmania in this area. Most of the 330 leishmaniasis patients presented cutaneous ulcers (96.1%), 2.4% mucocutaneous and 1.5% the mucosal form ('espundia'). The aetiological agents, determined by isoenzyme electrophoresis, were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in 16 out of 20 isolates and in the remaining 4 as Leishmania (Leishimania) amazonensis, the first ever-documented in Argentina. Sera analysed by ELISA and IFA using complex antigen from both T. cruzi and L. braziliensis showed a very high percentage of positives (66.3-78.2%). When antigens for specific diagnosis of Chagas' disease were used, 40.9% of the leishmaniasis patients were also found to be infected by T. cruzi. These results indicate that the strong immune response against T. cruzi gave no protection to Leishmania, in spite of the serological cross-reaction between these parasites. In addition, we showed that more than 40% of the patients would be misdiagnosed as chagasic if complex antigens, as epimastigotes or soluble fraction from epimastigotes, were used in IFA or ELISA. This is of paramount importance not only because patients' treatment would be associated to misdiagnosis but the fact that in many countries in Central and South America, a positive test for Chagas' disease means a rejection for those seeking employment.

Páginas